[65] The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) currently produces 63% of the world's cobalt. [71] Mining pollutes the vicinity and exposes local wildlife and indigenous communities to toxic metals thought to cause birth defects and breathing difficulties, according to health officials. From this cobalt is recovered by electrorefining or carbonate precipitation. those of zinc and iron), other cobaltoproteins are known besides B12. Egyptian and Babylonian pottery dyed with cobalt compounds can be dated back to 1450 B.C. [61][62], Since cobalt is generally produced as a by-product, the supply of cobalt depends to a great extent on the economic feasibility of copper and nickel mining in a given market. Introduction; Quality Policy; Quality Assurance Policy of Laboratory And every two H6L1 ligands form a structure similar to a handshake. [103], Since child and slave labor have been repeatedly reported in cobalt mining, primarily in the artisanal mines of DR Congo, technology companies seeking an ethical supply chain have faced shortages of this raw material and[104] the price of cobalt metal reached a nine-year high in October 2017, more than US$30 a pound, versus US$10 in late 2015. [99] Demand is expected to continue or increase as the prevalence of electric vehicles increases. Cobalt is also used to produce permanent magnets, such as the previously mentioned AlNiCo and samarium-cobalt magnets. [119] Cobalt pigments such as cobalt blue (cobalt aluminate), cerulean blue (cobalt(II) stannate), various hues of cobalt green (a mixture of cobalt(II) oxide and zinc oxide), and cobalt violet (cobalt phosphate) are used as artist's pigments because of their superior chromatic stability. In 2010, the countries producing the largest amounts of refined cobalt were China (33,000 tons), Finland (9,300) and Zambia (5,000). The cobalt doped ZnS in the form of thin films is the least investigated material regarding magnetic studies. Coenzyme B12 features a reactive C-Co bond that participates in the reactions. [94] The same carboxylates are used to improve the adhesion between steel and rubber in steel-belted radial tires. [148] It also causes skin problems when touched; after nickel and chromium, cobalt is a major cause of contact dermatitis. [136] In humans, B12 has two types of alkyl ligand: methyl and adenosyl. Samarium–Cobalt Magnet is strong permanent rare earth magnet made of an alloy of samarium, cobalt, Fe, Cu, Pr and Zr. Most coastal toxicity levels are influenced by anthropogenic input like sewage runoff and burning of fossil fuels. [citation needed], In 2016, 116,000 tonnes of cobalt was used. [90] Cobalt alloys are also used for dental prosthetics as a useful substitute for nickel, which may be allergenic. During discharge,[clarification needed] the lithium is released as lithium ions. [citation needed], Cobalt-60 (Co-60 or 60Co) is useful as a gamma-ray source because it can be produced in predictable amounts with high activity by bombarding cobalt with neutrons. https://www.thoughtco.com/metal-profile-cobalt-2340131 (accessed January 27, 2021). Although scientists are aware of threatening toxicity, less attention has been paid compared to other trace metals like mercury and lead in contaminated water systems. [63], Several methods exist to separate cobalt from copper and nickel, depending on the concentration of cobalt and the exact composition of the used ore. One method is froth flotation, in which surfactants bind to ore components, leading to an enrichment of cobalt ores. Like Mn and Fe, Co has a hybrid profile of biological uptake by phytoplankton via photosynthesis in the upper ocean and scavenging in the deep ocean, although most scavenging is limited by complex organic ligands. [49], Cobalt is a trace metal involved in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation detected in most ocean basins and is a limiting micronutrient for phytoplankton and cyanobacteria. [100] Exploration in 2016–2017 included the area around Cobalt, Ontario, an area where many silver mines ceased operation decades ago. In other words, cobalt has the highest Curie Point of all metals. It is one of the three naturally occurring magnetic metals (iron and nickel being the other two) and retains its magnetism at a higher temperature (2012°F, 1100°C) than any other metal. Their usefulness lies in the ability to vary the strength of the magnetic field through controlling the electrical current in the wire. It produced an estimated one-third of the total global cobalt production in 2008. Cobalt has been used in the production of high-performance alloys. Electromagnets are commonly used in electric motors and generators. Young, Roland S. Cobalt. [citation needed], Artisanal mining supplied 17% to 40% of the DRC production. Cobalt, metallic chemical element, one of the transition elements, atomic number 27. [61][62] It can also be used to make rechargeable batteries, and the advent of electric vehicles and their success with consumers probably has a great deal to do with the DRC's soaring production. [PDF], It causes respiratory problems when inhaled. [64], The products of the above-mentioned processes are transformed into the cobalt oxide (Co3O4). What is Samarium–Cobalt Magnet? Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/metal-profile-cobalt-2340131. Samarium Cobalt SmCo is capable of use in extremes of cold and heat. Magnetic materials are always made of metal, but not all metals are magnetic. Since being utilised for its magnetic properties in magnetic steels in 1917, cobalt is present in many important types of magnet which cover a range of applications. [70] Some 100,000 cobalt miners in Congo DRC use hand tools to dig hundreds of feet, with little planning and fewer safety measures, say workers and government and NGO officials, as well as The Washington Post reporters' observations on visits to isolated mines. The extraction technique used to produce refined cobalt metal depends on whether the feed material is in the form of (1) copper-cobalt sulfide ore, (2) cobalt-nickel sulfide concentrate, (3) arsenide ore or (4) nickel-laterite ore: According to the US Geological Survey (USGS) estimates, global mine production of cobalt was 88,000 tons in 2010. Then 3 M NaOH solutions were added drop-wise into the above solution to increase the pH of the solution. Kobold was used in describing cobalt ores that, while being smelted for their silver content, gave off poisonous arsenic trioxide. [citation needed], The main ores of cobalt are cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite (see above), but most cobalt is obtained by reducing the cobalt by-products of nickel and copper mining and smelting. Compared with neodymium magnets, the biggest feature of samarium cobalt magnets is that it has superior anti-corrosive and oxidation resistance. In general, there are two classes of magnetic substances, hard magnets and soft magnets. Cobalt stays magnetic to the highest temperature of all the magnetic elements (it has a Curie point of 1121 o C). Vom Bürger Thenard", "Ciudad Juarez orphaned source dispersal, 1983", "Field portable XRF analysis of environmental samples", Australian Academy of Science > Deceased Fellows > Hedley Ralph Marston 1900–1965, "Cobalt : its use to control wasting disease", "Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium", "Role of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium in carcinogenesis", Centers for Disease and Prevention – Cobalt, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cobalt&oldid=1000127921, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements, Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, It is also used as a base primer coat for, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 18:37. These proteins include methionine aminopeptidase 2, an enzyme that occurs in humans and other mammals that does not use the corrin ring of B12, but binds cobalt directly. Here we will introduce samarium cobalt magnets for sale that output high magnetic force, but also can work under 250-350°C. [92] It is also alloyed with 95% platinum for jewelry, yielding an alloy suitable for fine casting, which is also slightly magnetic. Arsenide ores are roasted to remove the majority of arsenic oxide. It produces gamma rays with energies of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Superalloys, such as stellite, are the largest consumer of cobalt metal, accounting for about 20% of demand. The residues are further leached with sulfuric acid, yielding a solution of copper sulfate. The cobalt deficiency was overcome by the development of "cobalt bullets", dense pellets of cobalt oxide mixed with clay given orally for lodging in the animal's rumen. [61][62] The temperature stability of these alloys makes them suitable for turbine blades for gas turbines and aircraft jet engines, although nickel-based single-crystal alloys surpass them in performance. The fact that cobalt is magnetic has also been exploited with the Japanese invention of cobalt magnetic steel where adding cobalt to steel vastly increases the magnetic hardness. These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking. The LD50 value for soluble cobalt salts has been estimated to be between 150 and 500 mg/kg. Cobalt-containing nickel sulfide ores are treated using the Sherritt process, named after Sherritt Gordon Mines Ltd. (now Sherritt International). The Properties and Applications of Platinum, The Properties and Composition of Monel 400, Rhodium, a Rare Platinum Group Metal, and Its Applications, Not All Iron Is Magnetic (Magnetic Elements), Beryllium Properties, History, and Applications. 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